In this video from the 2013 GPU Technology Conference, Ivan Dimkovic and Ana Balevic describe the ground-breaking DigiCortex Engine. Recently ported to CUDA, the application has seen huge speedups with GPU computing.
DigiCortexis my hobby project implementing large-scale simulation and visualization of biologically realistic cortical neurons, synaptic receptor kinetic, axonal action potential propagation delays as well as long-term and short-term synaptic plasticity. Current version of DigiCortex is heavily optimized for Intel CPUs (including Sandy Bridge AVX instruction set). The first CUDA-enabled version with GPU acceleration (CUDA optimizations done by Ana Balevic) is available as of v0.95
The simulation footage in this video is really gorgeous, so be sure to watch it in HD mode. Read the Full Story.